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Part 2 of 3
Building directly on the dialogue about the moral status of the human embryo as discussed in our July 2004 conference, the Ethics Center organized an intensive, multidisciplinary panel workshop over a day and a half to examine the proposals recently presented to the President’s Council on Bioethics about possible alternative sources of human embryonic stem cells for research. Such alternative stem cell sources might resolve the conflict between the experimental need to use human embryonic stem cells and the concern of many that such experimental use requires the destruction of embryonic human life. The workshop resulted in a provisional consensus statement, and produced a series of ethical questions about these alternative stem cell options, which were then addressed by participants from the community during a luncheon session on June 7th. Each table at the luncheon engaged in moderated discussion of one of these questions, and in a wrap-up session, each table moderator presented the summary of this discussion to the entire group.
White Paper: Alternative Sources of Pluripotent Stem Cells
Lawrence M. Hinman is Director of the Values Institute and Professor of Philosophy at the University of San Diego , where he has been teaching since 1975, and he is co-founder with Dr. Kalichman of the Center for Ethics in Science and Technology. Hinman is the author of two widely-used texts in ethics, Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory, 3rd ed. ( Wadsworth , 2002) and Contemporary Moral Issues, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2005). He has published numerous scholarly articles in ethics in journals such as Ethics, The Moralist, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Philosophical Studies, the Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Criminal Justice Ethics, Computers and Society, Ethics and Information Technology, and Teaching Philosophy; he has also contributed to numerous anthologies in ethics. Translations of his articles have appeared in German and Italian. He also publishes op-ed pieces in newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times and the San Diego Union-Tribune. Hinman is also actively engaged in developing Ethics Across the Curriculum (EAC) programs at the University of San Diego and around the country. As part of the USD EAC program, he has brought such notable speakers to USD as Carol Gilligan, Daniel Callahan, Michael Walzer, and Michael Josephson. Most recently, he has been developing ethics-related workshops and components for middle school and high school students in the Pacific Northwest. He has received several grants in this area, including two grants from the E. L. Wiegand Foundation for fostering the development of ethics across the curriculum programs on the high school and middle school levels. He has also organized several major conferences in philosophy, including Kantian Ethics: Interpretations and Critiques (January 2003). Hinman is a member of the Board of the American Philosophical Association and also a member of the Executive Committee of the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics. He is a past member of the APA Committee on Computing and Philosophy and chairs the APA Committee on Teaching and Philosophy in 2003-05, and for several years has been on the Steering Committee for the Computing and Philosophy (CAP) Conference at Carnegie-Mellon.
William B. Hurlbut is a Physician and Consulting Professor in the Program in Human Biology at Stanford University . Born in St. Helena California , he grew up in Bronxville , New York . After receiving his undergraduate and medical training at Stanford University , he completed postdoctoral studies in theology and medical ethics, studying with Robert Hamerton-Kelly, the Dean of the Chapel at Stanford, and subsequently with the Rev. Louis Bouyer of the Institut Catholique de Paris. In addition to teaching at Stanford, he currently serves on the President’s Council on Bioethics. His primary areas of interest involve the ethical issues associated with advancing biomedical technology, the biological basis of moral awareness, and studies in the integration of theology and philosophy of biology. His courses in biomedical ethics in the Program in Human Biology include: Biology, Technology and Human Life, and Ethical Issues in the Neurosciences. He has also taught a course on genetics and human origins with Dr. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Director of the Human Genome Diversity Project and a course on epidemics, evolution and ethics with Dr. Baruch Blumberg who received the Nobel Prize for discovery of the Hepatitis B Virus. Since 1998 he has been a member of the Chemical and Biological Warfare Working Group at the Center for International Security and Cooperation and has worked with NASA on projects in Astrobiology.
Michael Kalichman is co-founder with Dr. Hinman of the Center for Ethics in Science and Technology. A member of the Division of Neuropathology in the Department of Pathology, Kalichman is the Director of the UCSD Research Ethics Program. From 1986 through much of the 1990s, his research on the toxic effects of local anesthetics to peripheral nerves and on diabetic neuropathy was supported by grants principally from the NIH and the Department of Veterans Affairs. In 1988, Dr. Kalichman first taught a course in scientific methods and research ethics for biomedical research trainees in the UCSD School of Medicine. He currently offers seminars and courses to help UCSD Training Grant Program Directors comply with NIH requirements for training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), and teaches multiple courses in research ethics for UCSD graduate students and postdocs. Dr. Kalichman has been an invited participant or speaker at many meetings and workshops, including: Data Management in Biomedical Research (Dept. Health and Human Services, 1990); Biomedical Research Integrity in the 90s (sponsored by NIH, AAMC, and UCSD, San Diego, 1990); The Responsible Conduct of Research: A Commitment for all Scientists (PRIM&R, San Diego, 1996); Teaching Responsible Science (National Academy of Sciences, 1997); Attribution of Credit (Management of Biomedical Research Laboratories , Office of Research Integrity and University of Arizona, 1998); Educating for the Responsible Conduct of Research in the New Millennium (PRIM&R, Bethesda, 1999); review of a proposed PHS Policy on Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research (Office of Research Integrity, 2000); and a panel of RCR experts invited to consult with NIH on evaluating the training grant RCR requirement (Bethesda, 2003). He is director of a Web-based project funded by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and others to help institutions develop programs of instruction in the responsible conduct of research. Dr. Kalichman currently leads an NIH-funded project to assess the effectiveness of teaching research ethics.
nces Kamm is the Lucius Littauer Professor of Philosophy and Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and is Professor of Philosophy in the Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University . Professor Kamm specializes in normative ethical theory and problems in practical ethics related to medicine and law. She has received a grant from the American Council of Learned Societies and fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the American Association of University Women, Columbia Law School, the Harvard Program in Ethics and the Professions, the Center for Human Values at Princeton University, the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the National Institutes of Health, and she was a consultant on ethics to the World Health Organization. She is a member of the editorial boards of Philosophy & Public Affairs, Utilitas, and Legal Theory, and the advisory board of Routledge International Library of Philosophy. She is the author of Creation and Abortion (1992); Morality, Mortality, Vol 1: Death and Whom to Save From It (1993); Morality, Mortality, Vol 2: Rights, Duties, and Status (1996) – all from Oxford University Press. Current research interests include aspects of nonconsequentialist ethical theory, rights, bioethics, war, and morality.
Rev. Tadeusz Pacholczyk is a priest of the diocese of Fall River, Massachusetts , and currently Director of Education for The National Catholic Bioethics Center. As an undergraduate he earned degrees in philosophy, biochemistry, molecular cell biology, and chemistry, and did laboratory research on hormonal regulation of the immune response. He later earned a Ph.D. in Neuroscience from Yale University , where he focused on cloning genes for neurotransmitter transporters that are expressed in the brain. He also worked for several years as a molecular biologist at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. Fr. Tad studied for five years in Rome where he did advanced work in dogmatic theology and in bioethics, examining the question of delayed ensoulment of the human embryo. He has testified before members of the Massachusetts and Wisconsin State Legislatures during deliberations over a bill to ban human cloning. He has given presentations and participated in roundtables on stem cells, cloning, and other biotechnologies throughout the U.S. and in Europe.